The syllabus has been structured to assess candidates’ basic knowledge and skills in the production, processing, storage, packaging and marketing of farm animals and their products. It is also intended to assess the capability of the candidates to pursue further training at the tertiary
- AIMS OF THE SYLLABUS
The syllabus will therefore seek to assess candidates’ knowledge and skills in
(1) basic animal production practices such as feeding, housing, pest and disease control;
(2) the efficient and effective management of animal enterprises;
(3) the application of environmentally friendly practices to sustain production;
(4) the identification of basic problems hindering the improvement of the Animal Industry;
(5) the efficient processing, preservation, packaging, storage and marketing of animals and their products.
- Schools offering Animal Husbandry are expected to raise at least one species of farm animals from each of the following groups:
- Monogastrics e.g. poultry, pigs, rabbits.
(b) Ruminants e.g. goats, sheep, cattle.
- Non-traditional farm animals e.g. grasscutters,snails
- It is recommended that the schools should have agriculture laboratories where specimens, equipment and chemicals would be kept.
- It is also recommended that candidates keep practical notebooks which should contain records of activities undertaken and observations made on the school farm and on field trips and of specimens collected.
- EXAMINATION SCHEME
For candidates in Ghana only
There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3, all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.
PAPER 1: Will consist of fifty multiple choice objective questions all of which must be
answered within 1 hour for 50 marks.
PAPER 2: Will consist of six essay-type questions. Candidates will be required to
answer four questions within 2 hours for 80 marks.
PAPER 3: Will be a practical paper for school candidates or a test of practical paper for
private candidates. The paper will consist of four questions all of which must
be answered within 2 hours for 60 marks.
|A. INTRODUCTION TO
1. Meaning, scope and
importance of animal
2. Problems in animal
3.Quality and Safety
standard of animal food
4. Classification of farm
B. ANATOMY AND
1. Meaning of the terms:
and the external
orientation of farm
2. Digestive System
anatomy of digestive
system of farm
(b) Digestion and
processes in the
of farm animals
3. Central Nervous
(a) Parts of the Central
(b) Functions of the
(c) Endocrine System
(i) Endocrine glands
and their functions
(ii) Hormones and
4. Integumentary, skeletal
and muscular systems
5. Reproductive System
(a) Anatomy of the
of poultry and
(b) Functions of organs
and parts of the
6. Circulatory System
(a) Structure and
(b) Heart and Pulse
7. Respiratory System
(a) Meaning and
(b) Structure and
Functions of the
8. Excretory System
(a) Meaning and
Importance of the
(b) Structure and
Functions of the
(c) Excretory Products
C. ANIMAL NUTRITION
1. Introduction to Animal
(a) Meaning and
(b) Modes of feeding
2. Feedstuffs and Feed
(a) Types, composition
and functions of
the feed nutrients
(b) Classification of
(c) Food tests
(d) Producers and
3. Formulation and
Preparation of Animal
(a) Common terms
used in feed
(b) Factors considered
in the formulation of ration
(c) Steps in the
formulation of ration
4. Handling and Storage of
(a) Importance of feed
(b) Factors that affect
the quality of stored
5. Record keeping and
estimation of cost of
6. Pests of stored feed and
D. ANIMAL HEALTH
1. Meaning of terms
2. Signs of good and ill-
3. Factors that pre-
dispose animals to
4. Effects of diseases,
pests and parasites on
5. Zoonotic diseases; their
6. Pathogens of farm
(a) Classification of
diseases and their
(c) Principles for
diseases of farm
practices in the
control of diseases
of farm animals
7. Ectoparasites and
(a) Types and
(b) Structure, life cycle
and mode of
(c) Conditions that
8. Prevention and control
9. Economic importance
1. Heredity, basic genetic
terms and Mendel’s first
law of inheritance
2. Meaning, objectives
and benefits of animal
3. Performance traits of
4. Methods of animal
5. Nutritional and
6. Artificial Insemination
(a) Meaning and
(b) Advantages of
(c) Signs of heat
procedures in the
storage of semen
F. INTRODUCTION TO
1. Internal and external
environment of animals
2. The role of the nervous
and endocrine systems
in homeostasis and
animal’s response to
3. Determination of room
respiration rate in farm
4. Effects of climate on
5. Modification of animal
management pratices to
reduce stress on
1. Poultry production
(a) Definition and
(b) Classes of poultry
(c) Breeds and types
(d) Importance/role of
(e) Systems of poultry
(f) Incubation and
(ii) Natural and
(iii) Selection of eggs
hatching of eggs
(v) Incubation Process
(vi) Candling of Eggs
(vii) Marketing of day-
(g) Management Practices
(i) Prospects of producing
the various types of
2. Pig Production
(a) Types, breeds and
(b) Importance of pig
(c) Systems of
marketing of pigs
3. Domestic Pets
(a) Meaning and
Importance of pets
(b) Management of pets
(c) Training of Pets
(d) Marketing of pets
1. Sheep and goat
(b) Importance of
sheep and goats
(d) Common parasites
and diseases and
(e) Processing and
2. Beef Cattle Production
(a) Breeds and
(b) Importance of
and management of
cattle for beef and
e) General management
(f) Processing and
(g) Major Problems in
beef cattle production
3. Dairy cattle production
(a) Breeds and
features of dairy cow
importance of milk
c) Management practices
(d) Diseases and their
(e) Production, processing
and marketing of milk
and dairy products
(f) Problems of dairy
cattle production in
I. RANGE AND
1. Introduction to range
pasture and range
(b) Types of pasture
and their features
(c) Importance of
pastures and forage
crops in animal
(d) Factors that affect the
different types of
(e) Major forage crops
(f) Poisonous plants in
2. Pasture establishment
(a) Qualities of good
pasture and forage
(b) Establishment of
(c) Improving natural
(d) Management of
(e) Harvesting of forage
3. Forage conservation
(b) Preparation of hay
(c) Utilization of crop
residue in feeding
1. Rabbit and Grasscutter
(a) Common breeds
(b) Importance of
(d) Processing and
2. Snail Farming
(a) Meaning and
(b) External features of
(c) Types of species
(d) Site selection
(e) Management Practices
(f) Processing and marketing of snails
enterprises in animal
1. Breeds of
2. Classification of farm
3. Anatomy and
Physiology of Farm
4. Animal Nutrition
5. Main Pests and
Parasites of farm animals
6. Diseases of farm
7. Artificial Insemination
9. Management Practices
10 Animal Products
11. Range and Pasture
12. Animal Housing and
Knowledge of the meaning (rearing of farm animals), scope (nutrition, health, etc.) and importance (source of food, employment, income, etc) of farm animals are required.
Knowledge and understanding of the problems in animal production in West Africa and possible solutions to the problems will be assessed.
Description of the quality and safety standards of animal food products. Practices for maintaining standards, effect of consuming poor animal products and roles of agencies involved in the animal food products safety and quality will be assessed.
Classification based on;
1. Digestive system
(a) Ruminants e.g. sheep, goat, cattle
(b) Non-ruminants (monogastrics) eg.
(c) Non-ruminant herbivores e.g.
rabbits, grasscutter, guinea pigs.
2. Concept of traditional
(cattle, sheep, goat) and
(rabbit, grasscutter, snails).
Understanding of the terms anatomy and physiology; and knowledge of parts and positions of the various external parts (orientation) of farm animals e.g. the head of the cow is anterior to the hind limb or udder; will be assessed.
The main features of the digestive systems of ruminants, non-ruminant herbivores and monogastrics and the differences in structure and functions will be assessed.
Candidates’ understanding of digestion processes in the various classes of farm animals, the role of specific enzymes in the digestion of specific nutrients e.g. carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oils in farm animals, and the structures and processes involved in absorption of nutrients will be assessed.
Ability to identify the parts of the CNS and ANS and describe the mode of action of the CNS and ANS is required.
Knowledge of the functions of the ANS is required. The ability to explain how nerve impulses are transmitted and how homeostasis is ensured will also be assessed.
Knowledge of what endocrine glands are, their location in the body and functions will be assessed.
Hormones, their functions and mode of action, and understanding of the need to administer synthetic hormones will be assessed
The structure and functions of the integumentary (skin), skeletal and muscular systems will be assessed.
Understanding of reproductive terms e.g. puberty, oestrous cycle, oestrus/anoestrus, ovulation, fertilization, libido, etc will be assessed.
Knowledge of the main features of the reproductive system of poultry and livestock will be assessed.
Knowledge of the functions of the organs and parts of the reproductive system will be assessed.
The various stages in the reproductive process (from puberty through mating to parturition); differences between the reproductive processes in poultry and livestock will be assessed.
Knowledge of reproductive hormones and their functions is also required.
Assessment will be on the various organs of the system e.g. heart, blood vessels; tissues (blood, lymph) and cells (blood cells); and their functions.
Differences between pulmonary and systemic circulation will also be assessed.
Meaning of heart and pulse rate and the interpretation of their values will be assessed.
Understanding of the term respiration and its importance will be assessed.
The structure and functions of the parts of the respiratory system of livestock will be required.
Understanding of the term excretion and its importance is required
The structure and functions of the parts of the excretory system of livestock will be required.
Examples of excretory products and how they are eliminated from the body is required.
Understanding of the term nutrition and its importance/role in animal production e.g. improves body resistance, production level, etc. will be assessed.
Understanding of basic nutrition terms such as nutrients, diet, ration, roughages, malnutrition, concentrates, etc will also be required.
The differences in the various modes of feeding in non-ruminant herbivores, ruminants, carnivores and omnivores will be required.
The influence of the type of dentition on the mode of feeding of the animals will also be required.
Feedstuffs and supplements, their main composition and functions of the major nutrients will be required
Ability to group feedstuffs according to the major nutrients they supply will also be assessed.
Ability to use simple food tests to detect the presence of carbohydrates, fats and oils, proteins in feedstuffs is required.
Knowledge of major producers and suppliers of feedstuffs in the country is also required
Understanding of the common terms used in formulation such as dry matter, diet, metabolizable energy, malnutrition etc. will be assessed.
Factors considered in the formulation of rations e.g. age, physiological state of the animal, cost of feed ingredients etc. will be required.
Ability to use the Pearson Square Method to formulate a balanced ration is required.
Importance of feed storage and features of the various feed storage structures/containers will be required.
Factors which affect the quality of stored feed e.g. storage temperature/ambient temperature, humidity, water content, pests and rodents will be required.
Ability to follow procedures /practices in the handling of stored feed e.g. drying, fumigation, will also be assessed.
Ability to keep feed records and estimate the cost of prepared feed will be assessed.
Ability to identify common pests of stored feeds, the effects of pests on stored feed (e.g. damage, contamination), preventive and control measures of pests in feed will be assessed.
Candidates will be assessed on their
understanding of the terms: disease, pest and parasite.
Knowledge of the characteristics of healthy and sick animals and ability to describe the signs and symptoms of disease in farm animals will be assessed.
Understanding of the factors and how they predispose animals to diseases e.g. over crowding, poor nutrition, poor housing,
Causes of stress and measures to reduce stress in farm animals will be assessed.
Understanding of the effects of diseases, pests and parasites on the economic value of animals/ animal products and income e.g. reduced value/output, loss of income, reduced quality of products, will be assessed.
Understanding of the term zoonotic disease and its importance e.g. effect on human health and preventive methods will be assessed.
Knowledge of the various classes of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa)
Common pathogenic diseases and their economic importance in animal production will be assessed.
Principles for prevention and control of diseases (e.g. nutrition, vaccination, ) with respect to cost, suitability and efficiency;
Ability to use prophylactics (coccidiostat, anti-biotics, anti-stress drugs, vitamins) to control animal diseases will be assessed.
Practices such as deworming, dipping, dusting, treatment of wounds and sores, spraying and fumigation of animal houses, drug administration and precautions to be taken in the use of drugs for disease control will be assessed.
Knowledge of the two main types of parasites (ecto and endoparasites) and examples is required.
The structure, life cycle and mode of feeding of the common types of endo- and ectoparasites will be required.
Conditions that affect parasite population, and how they could be changed to reduce parasite population will be assessed.
Measures such as deworming, drenching, dipping, farm sanitation etc, the use of appropriate equipment and chemicals in the prevention and control of parasites will be assessed.
The economic importance of ectoparasites and endoparasites (i) on the host e.g. ectoparasites damage skin and hides, suck blood. Endoparasites damage internal organs
(ii) on animal products e.g. loss of income, increased expenditure due to control measures, etc. will be assessed.
Candidates will be assessed on their
understanding of heredity and associated genetic terms (e.g. gene, genotype, phenotype, sex-linkage) in animals, the processes of cell division (meiosis and mitosis) and inheritance of traits;
Mendel’s first law of inheritance of genes
Understanding of the term animal improvement and knowledge of the objectives and benefits of animal improvement e.g. disease resistance, better growth rate, will be assessed.
Ability to analyze data to determine superiority of improved animals based on genotype and phenotype will be assessed.
The different methods of animal improvement (introduction, selection, breeding), types of breeding (e.g. cross breeding, line breeding), advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of animal improvement will be required.
Nutritional and environmental factors that affect animal improvement will be assessed
Understanding of the term artificial insemination, the ability to describe A.I. technique and name of tools and equipment used in the process are required.
Advantages in the use of A.I. will be required.
Ability to detect heat in farm animals through knowledge of signs of heat and the proper handling procedures in the collection and storage of semen will be assessed
Candidates will be assessed on what constitutes the internal environment (e.g. blood glucose level, body temperature) and external environment (e.g. ambient temperature, humidity, wind) of animals and examples of acceptable levels of constituents of these environments
The role of the nervous and endocrine systems in creating environmental awareness in animals, their responses to stimuli and maintenance of homeostasis e.g. normal levels of body
espiration; heart rate is required.
Knowledge of physiological and behavioural responses of animals to heat, cold, exercise, etc is also required.
Knowledge of equipment employed in the measurement of temperature, humidity, respiration rate, heart beat, etc. and the ability to use the equipment and interpretation of generated data are required
Indirect and direct effects of climate on farm animals (e.g. disease prevalence, feed quality and quantity, heat stress, increased abortion) will be assessed.
Understanding of the terms thermo-neutral zone and optimum temperature and their relation to animal productivity will be assessed.
Ways of modifying the environment e.g. provision of appropriate housing, shading, cooling; and management (e.g. better feeding, time of grazing, etc.) on improved animal productivity will be assessed. Strategies to minimize stress e.g. design and lay-out of houses, provision of cool water, modified feeds, proper timing of drug administration will also be assessed.
Candidates will be assessed on their understanding of the term poultry and knowledge of the characteristics of poultry e.g. possession of beaks, wings, feathers.
Knowledge of the different types of poultry e.g. chicken, turkey, ducks, Guinea fowls and ostriches will be assessed.
Knowledge of the breeds of the various types of poultry:
Chicken e.g Rhode Island Red, Plymouth Rock;
Guinea fowl e.g.Grey, Red-wattled (Pearl variety);
Turkey e.g. Broad Breasted Bronze:
Ducks e.g. Muscovy, Khaki Campbell;
Ostriches e.g. Blue Neck, Red Neck will be assessed.
The importance of the production of the various types of poultry will be assessed.
The various systems of poultry keeping and the advantages and disadvantages of the various production systems: extensive, intensive, semi-intensive systems will be required.
Understanding of terms such as fertile egg, hatchability, incubation and broodiness will be assessed.
Ability to describe and differentiate between natural and artificial incubation, the advantages and disadvantages of each method of incubation will be assessed.
Knowledge of the characteristics of eggs suitable for hatching and the ability to select them for hatching are required.
Knowledge of the incubation period of the types of poultry and the conditions necessary for hatching of eggs will be assessed.
Ability to describe the process of incubation and knowledge of hatchery practices that would ensure production of healthy chicks e.g. fumigation, temperature will be assessed.
Understanding of the process of candling of eggs is required.
Techniques and precautions for the marketing of day-old chicks will be assessed.
Management practices i.e. housing, breeding, brooding, feeding, sanitation, pest and disease control, identification, record keeping, etc. will be assessed.
Knowledge and understanding of the activities involved in the processing and marketing of poultry i.e. slaughtering and Processing, Quality Control, Packaging, Preservation and Storage, Marketing Outlets, transportation and advertisement will be assessed.
The prospects for keeping the various types of poultry, consumer preferences, market availability, cost etc will be assessed.
Candidates will be assessed on their knowledge of
(i) Types of pig. i.e. bacon, lard and pork types
(ii) Breeds of pig e.g., Yorkshire, Ashanti
Black, Large White, Landrace, and
(iii) The characteristics of the breeds of
The importance of pig production to the economy i.e. source of employment, income, insulin used in pharmaceutical industries etc will be assessed.
Candidates’ understanding of and ability to describe the various management systems of pig production i.e. Intensive, Semi-intensive and Extensive systems will be assessed.
The advantages and disadvantages of each of the management systems will also be assessed.
The various management practices used in pig production e.g. breeding, housing amd feeding will be assessed.
Knowledge and techniques of slaughtering, processing and marketing practices, e.g. bacon making, quality control, packaging, storage, identification of marketing outlets, advertisements etc. will be assessed.
The meaning of the term ‘pet’; (e.g. cat, dog, parrot) and the important roles pets play in the society e.g. security, income, shepherding, companionship are required.
The management practices in the raising of pets such as housing, feeding, sanitation, breeding, grooming and care, pests and diseases and their control will be assessed. The importance of pet licencing and regular vaccination will be assessed.
Knowledge of animal behaviour and reasons for training of pets is required.
Marketing strategies and value chain process in the marketing of pets will be assessed.
The common breeds of sheep and goats and their geographical distribution will be assessed.
The distinguishing features between sheep and goats, as well as the characteristics of the breeds e.g. body size, nature of hair cover and horn shape will also be assessed.
The importance of sheep and goats i.e. Social e.g. religious; Economic e.g. income, hides and skin for leather etc; Nutrition e.g. meat for food etc. is required.
Production requirements using a value chain approach is required.
Management practices in the production of sheep and goats such as
hoof trimming, housing, feeding, sanitation, disease and pest control are also required. Ability to determine the age of sheep and goat by the dentition will be assessed.
Common parasites (ticks and worms) and diseases of sheep and goats e.g anthrax, mastitis, foot rot; signs/symptoms of infection and control measures will be assessed.
Techniques involved in the processing and marketing of sheep and goats to ensure meat quality, safety and consumer satisfaction including slaughtering and processing, quality control, preservation and storage, packaging, advertising and marketing outlets will be assessed.
Common breeds of beef cattle in West Africa and Europe; and the characteristics and general structure of breef breeds will be assessed.
The importance of beef cattle production i.e. nutritional value of beef, use of hides, horns, bones and manure, social and economic value of beef and live cattle will be assessed.
The common production systems of beef cattle e.g. Extensive, pastoral, agropastoral, semi-intensive, intensive feedlot,pastures), their characteristics and the strengths and weaknesses of each system will be
The requirements, using value chain approach for producing beef cattle; selection of management system, foundation stock, and qualities of bulls and cows to be selected for traction will be assessed.
Skills in carrying out practices such as housing, feeding, breeding, fattening, etc. Knowledge of training of yoked cattle will be assessed.
Techniques of slaughtering and processing of carcass, maintenance of safety standards, packaging and sale of meat products will be assessed.
The negative effects of poor management of beef cattle on the environment, as well as problems of feed and water shortages, cattle theft ,pestsetc and their solutions will be assessed.
Examples of pure and cross bred dairy breeds in tropical and temperate regions; and the distinguishing features of dairy cow will be assessed.
Knowledge of the composition and nutritional value of fresh milk will be assessed.
Knowledge of sources of milk such as goats, sheep, buffaloes, camels and cattle and the importance of milk from dairy cattle including food, income,employment, trade etc. will be assessed.
The requirements, using a value chain approach, for producing milk from dairy cattle e.g. market demand for milk and dairy products, inputs for producing wholesome /healthy milk etc. Selecting suitable breeds and management systems will be assessed.
Knowledge of symptoms and methods of controlling mastitis, tuberculosis and ketosis is required.
Equipment and tools required for milking, milk handling and processing; pasteurization of milk; examples of products e.g. yoghurt, cottage cheese, tinned milk, powdered milk will be assessed.
(i) Knowledge of consequences of consuming contaminated milk will be assessed.
(ii) Knowledge in maintaining quality and safety standards in milk processing and marketing will be assessed. Knowledge of packaging,storage and marketing practices will also be assessed.
Effects of warm climate on dairy animals and milk production; and the solutions to the problems will be assessed.
Candidates will be assessed on their understanding of the basic terms in pasture and range management e.g. pasture, pasture rotation, stocking rate, range, forage crops
Types of pasture (natural/range and artificial/cultivated) and their features will be assessed.
The role of forage and pasture crops in animal production will be assessed.
The factors that affect the productivity of different types of pasture eg. rainfall, soil fertility, temperature, weeds, etc. is required
Knowledge of the common and scientific names of the major forage crops and their classification are required.
Knowledge of poisonous plants in pasture e.g. Lantana camara, Crotalaria rotundusis required.
Knowledge of qualitites of good pasture and forage species e.g. high productivity,
palatability and fast growth is required.
Cultural practices associated with pasture establishment e.g. site selection, land preparation, methods of propagation of pasture, their merits and demerits, i.e. seeding, vegetative means will be assessed.
Understanding of the need to improve natural pastures and the techniques for improving natural pastures will be required.
Skills in managing cultivated pastures e.g. control of fire, proper stocking rate, disease prevention and control will be assessed.
Knowledge of tools/equipment for harvesting forage crops and yield determination will be assessed.
Forage conservation and its importance; the various forms of conserved forage e.g. hay and silage; and differences between hay and silage based on the physical,chemical and nutritive properties will be assessed
The processes and precautions in the preparation of hay and silage e.g. cutting herbage at the right time, proper compacting, use of additives,etc will be assessed.
The different types of crop residue, the merits and demerits of using
residue for feeding ruminants is required.
Knowledge of the common breeds of rabbits and grasscutter will be assessed.
Importance of producing the animals e.g. source of meat, pelt, income, will be assessed.
Production and management practices i.e. housing, feeding, sanitation, breeding, disease and pest control, record keeping will be assessed.
Activities involved in the processing and marketing of rabbits and grascutter will be assessed.
Meaning and importance of snail farming are required.
Knowledge of external features of snails and their functions is required.
Knowledge of types of species used for snail farming is required.
Factors to consider in site selection is required.
Management practices: housing, feeding, sanitation, breeding, pest and disease control, record keeping, processing and marketing is required.
Steps involved in processing snail as well as marketing will be assessed.
(i) Knowledge of animal production
(ii) Factors to be considered and
procedures in establishing animal
production enterprise will be
Ability to identify common types and breeds of farm animals is required.
Ability to classify farm animals based on the type of digestive system i.e ruminants, non- ruminant (monogastrics) and non-
ruminant herbivores is required.
Ability to describe the orientation of external parts of farm animals and to draw and label animals and their parts will be assessed.
Ability to identify and draw the major anatomical structures in the various body systems; the differences between the structures and their functions will also be assessed.
Ability to identify common feedstuffs and supplements e.g. maize, fish meal, oyster shell; and state the major nutrients they contain is required.
Ability to perform simple food tests for carbohydrates, fats and oils and protein is required.
Ability to formulate feed using the Pearson Square Method, estimate cost of prepared feed and keep feed records will be
Ability to identify pests of stored feed and feedstuffs; their effects and control measures will be assessed.
Ability to identify the main pests and parasites of farm animals ( ectoparasites and endoparasites); their effects and control will be assessed.
Ability to draw and label the life cycles of tapeworm and roundworm is required.
Ability to identify the main diseases of farm animals, and causal agents is required.
Simple preventive and control measures such as drenching, dipping, spraying, vaccination; and the various equipment and tools used in their control are also required.
Ability to identify the tools and equipment used in artificial insemination and their uses will be assessed.
Ability to identify and use equipment to determine parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, respiration rate and heart beat; and interpret data will be assessed.
Ability to identify tools and equipment used for management practices such as housing, breeding, brooding, feeding, identification, debeaking, castration,dehorning, and candling; and their maintenance will be assessed.
Ability to identify, and knowledge of the uses of animal products and by-products such as milk, skin, blood meal and feathers will be assessed.
Ability to identify forage crops e.g. Panicum maximum; Poisonous plants e.g. Lantana camara; and conserved forage e.g.hay and silage is required.
Ability to identify tools and equipment used in the cultivation and managment of pastures and conservation of forage is also required.
Ability to identify suitable material to use in constructing animal houses and structures e.g. cement, bamboo, wire mesh and wood is required.
Ability to identify appropriate structures for various farm animals e.g. hutches for rabbits, open -sided houses for pigs.